Etkili Bir Araştırma Yazma Yönergeleri

 

Etkili Bir Araştırma Yazma Yönergeleri

Eğitmen: Kevin J. Heintz, M.A. English

* Bu eğitim Kasım 2018’de Seul, Güney Kore’deki ChungAng Üniversitesi’nde sunuldu. Wordvice / Deneme İnceleme Genel Yayın Yönetmeni Kevin J. Heintz, çalışmanızı en iyi dergilerde yayınlayacak bir araştırma makalesinin nasıl düzenleneceğini ve oluşturulacağını açıklıyor.

İlk dili İngilizce olan araştırmacılar bile, bazı özel kuralları öğrenmeli ve araştırma makaleleri yazarken bazı standart kuralları takip etmelidir. Bu, kompozisyon yazmaktan veya profesörlerinize ve arkadaşlarınıza e-posta göndermekten tamamen farklı bir beceri seti gerektirir ve bu nedenle, her araştırmacının araştırma yazmayı nasıl geliştireceğini öğrenmeye devam etmesi gerekir.

Araştırma, yaptığınız bilimsel prensipler ve keşiflerden ibaret değil, bu keşifleri diğer araştırmacılarla paylaşmakla ilgilidir. Bunu yapmak için araştırmacılar çalışmalarını dergilerde yayınlamalıdır. Güçlü yazım, araştırmanızı daha erişilebilir ve güçlü kılmanız için anahtardır ve bu nedenle bu sunum araştırmanın zorlukları hakkında değil, araştırma yazma talepleriyle ilgilidir. Bu seminerde yer alan yöntemler ve bilgiler hemen hemen her türlü araştırma makalesine uygulanabilir, ancak elbette tam yapı ve içerik araştırmanızı nereye göndereceğinize göre belirlenir.

Seminer İçeriği

  1. Araştırma Yazıma Genel Bakış
  2. Araştırma Yazısının Yapısı
  3. Yazınızın Bölümlerini Oluşturmak
  4. Yazım Kalitesini Artırma İpuçları

* Anlatım ve anlayışınızı test etmek için seminer boyunca sınavlar verilmektedir.

Araştırma Yazıma Genel Bakış

“Bir araştırma makalesi ne yapmalı?”

  • Belirli bir çalışma alanı hakkında edindiğiniz bilgileri diğer araştırmacılarla paylaşın
  • Çalışmanızın mevcut bilime nasıl uyduğunu gösterin.
  • Okuyucuları önemli bilimsel faaliyetler hakkında bilgilendirin.
  • İlgili literatür (Giriş), araştırma ve analiz için kullanılan yöntemler (Yöntemler), çalışmanızın bulguları (Sonuçlar) ve bu sonuçların getirdiği sonuçları ve gerekli olabilecek diğer araştırmaları içeren çalışmanızın bağlamını açıkça ve kısaca açıklayın. (Tartışma ve sonuç).

“Araştırma makalesi yazarken dikkat edilmesi gereken en önemli faktörler nelerdir?”

Yaptığınız araştırma elbette yeni, zamanında, titiz ve ilginç olmalıdır. Ancak bilimsel araştırmanızı da yazıya aktarmalısınız – iyi yazılmış bir makale dergilere kabul edilme şansınızı büyük ölçüde artıracaktır. Bir araştırma makalesinde kaliteli yazı oluşturmaya yardımcı olan faktörlere genel bir bakış:

Uyum

  • Makalenizin tüm bölümleri, anlamlı bir sırayla birbirine uymalıdır.
  • Diğer bölümleri anlamak için gereken tüm bilgileri gerekli bölümlere dahil edin.
  • Gerekmedikçe bilgileri tekrar etmeyin.
  • Cümlelerinizin gramer ve mantıksal olarak tutarlı olduğundan emin olun.

Organizasyon

  • Çoğu bilimsel makale IMRAD yapısını takip eder – doğru kısımları doğru bölüme koyduğunuzdan emin olun (örneğin, Yöntemler bölümüne literatür taramasını dahil etmeyin).

İlgililik

  • Araştırma yaptığınızda, makalenize TUTABİLECEĞİNİZ çok sayıda bilgi ve veri bulunduğunu fark edeceksiniz. Ancak, uzunluk kurallarına uymanız ve kağıdınızı odaklı tutmanız gerekir. Bu nedenle, her bölüm için odaklanmak üzere uygun sayıda öğe seçtiğinizden emin olmalısınız.
  • Örneğin, çalışmanızın 10 sonucu varsa, ancak makaleniz yalnızca 4.000 kelime olabilir, bu sonuçları yalnızca hipotezinizi destekleyenlere, belki de 3-5 en önemli sonuçlara daraltmak isteyebilirsiniz.
  • Aynısı Giriş için de geçerlidir; hangi arka planı, içeriği ve ilgili literatürü içermesi gerektiğini seçmelisiniz. Okuyucularınıza yalnızca çalışma alanınız hakkında odaklanmış ve ilgili bir anlayış sağlayan bilgiler eklediğinizden emin olun.

Anlaşılırlık

  • Açıklık tutarlılık, organizasyon ve alaka düzeyi ile ilgilidir. Makalenizdeki her paragrafın ve cümlenin doğal ve okunması ve anlaşılması kolay olduğu anlamına gelir: uygun dilbilgisi, kelime öbeği ve stil, sizin uzmanlığınıza bağlı olarak hem uzmanlar hem de uzman olmayan kişiler tarafından okunabilen ve anlaşılabilir bir yazı yazmak için anahtardır.
  • Derginin veya konferansın “REHBER YAZARLARI” bölümünü kontrol edin ya da bildiri bir sınıfsa, uygun biçimlendirme gereksinimlerini kullandığınızdan emin olun. İşte kullanışlı bir site: OWL—Online Writing Lab at Purdue University

Araştırma Yazısının Yapısı

Research Paper Structure

Most research papers move from broad to specific information and back to broad again.

Bilimsel araştırma makalelerinin genel yapısı IMR & D’dir (Giriş, Yöntemler, Sonuçlar ve Tartışma). Bilgi, bu şemada görüldüğü gibi, genişden özele doğru tekrar tekrar hareket eder, Giriş ve Tartışma makalenizdeki en fazla alanı kapsıyor ve Yöntemler ve Sonuçlar genellikle en kısa ve en odaklı bölümlerdir. Ancak, kağıdınızı yazdığınız sıra, bilgilerin son sırası ile aynı olmayacaktır. Önce her bir bölümün ne yaptığını kısaca inceleyelim, sonra işinizi nasıl düzenleyeceğinizi ve oluşturacağınızı tartışalım.

Giriş Bölümü

Ne işe yarar?

* Çözülecek problemi tartışı (amaç cümlesi)

* Araştırmanızın şu anki bilime nerede uygun olduğunu açıklar (geçmiş ve bağlam)

* Birincil literatürü kaynak göstererek kullanır ve problemin şu anki anlayışını özetler (“literatür taraması”)

Ne zaman yazılmalı?

* Son olarak yazın – sonuçtan sonra ve başlık ve özetden önce

Methods Section

What does it do?

*Tells how you did the study—what materials and methods of research and analysis were used.

When do you write it?

*First section you write—after preparing your figures and tables

Results Section

What does it do?

*Explains the important findings of your study that help to answer your research question or hypothesis and addresses your purpose statement.

When do you write it?

*After the Methods and before the Discussion/Conclusion

Discussion/Conclusion Section

What does it do?

*Explains what your findings mean and what the implications and importance are both to your specific area of research and in a broader context (i.e., to the wider field or to society ).

*Includes limitations to your study and discusses possible future research that is needed to answer your research question more clearly and address closely related questions.

When do you write it?

*After the Results Section and before the Introduction

Composing Your Paper Sections

Research Paper Structure 2

The Methods and Results comprise the core content of your paper. Write these sections first.

This portion of the lecture focuses on developing techniques for composing your paper. You should always go back through your paper after one section is finished and correct or change another part, but by composing in this order you will be sure to include all of the important information. Not that the Methods and Results sections are written first. The reason for this is because you will not be changing or adding to these sections after you have evaluated your research—they represent the core data of your study.

Step 1: Prepare the figures and tables

Most likely, your research paper will use some figures, tables, or other graphics—they are also core data because they are usually numbers representing your findings and methods used. We won’t go into the details of how to prepare these here, but in the Results section we will go over how to write captions for the figures based on the data and research questions. For a detailed explanation of preparing and formatting figures, check out these sites (every journal will have their own formatting guidelines):

Springer Online Research Resources

ACSESS Digital Library (ASA, CSSA, and SSSA publications for reference)

Step 2: Write the Methods

This section responds to the question “How was the problem studied and analyzed?”

The Methods section should:

  • Describe how an experiment was done.
  • Give a rationale for why specific experimental procedures were chosen.
  • Describe what was done to answer the research question and how it was done.
  • Explain how results were analyzed.

Organization of Methods

Write the Methods section in this order to ensure proper organization and make it easier for readers to understand how your study was carried out:

  1. Description of materials used, including site and sample
  2. Explanation of how materials were prepared
  3. Explanation of how measurements were made and calculations performed
  4. Explanation of statistical methods to analyze data

Tips for the Methods Section

  • Organize description of preparations, measurements, and protocol chronologically.
  • List the Methods in the same order as they will appear in the Results section.
  • Material should be organized by topic from most to least important.
  • Headings can be used to separated different results; paragraphs are often used instead.

Step 3: Write the Results

This section responds to the question “What did you find?” Only the direct results of your research should be presented here, not any results from other studies. This is essentially an analysis of the data explained in sentence form so that it is easier to read and put into context.

The Results section should include:

  • Findings presented in the same order as in the Methods section
  • Data presented in tables, charts, graphs, and other figures (placed among research text or on a separate page)
  • Reports on data collection, recruitment, and/or participants
  • Data that corresponds to the central research question(s)
  • Secondary findings (secondary outcomes, subgroup analyses, etc.)

 Organization of Results

Write the Results in the same order as you wrote your Methods. One trusted method of writing the results is addressing specific research questions presented in the figures. Within each research question, present the type of data that addresses that research question.

Sample research question asked in a survey:

“What do hospital patients over age 55 think about postoperative care?”

Present this answer as a statement based on the data:

“Hospital patients over the age of 55 were 30% more likely to report negative experiences after postoperative care (M=83; see Fig. 1).”

Elaborate on this finding with secondary information included in the same paragraph:

“The most common negative issues reported were inattention by nurses, lack of proper medicine and a prolonged waiting period for personal issues ((P>12), (W>13), and (D>10); see Fig. 3).”

Caption your figures with the same method, using the data and research question to create phrases that give context to the data:

“Figure 1: Attitudes towards postoperative care in patients over the age of 55.”

Results figure

Your figure captions answer research questions by representing the data findings as phrases.

Grammar Guidelines for Results

  • When referencing figures, use the present tense; when discussing events of the experiment/study, use past tense
  • Passive or active voice are generally acceptable—but consistency is most important. (Read articles from target journal).
  • Cite the figure or table every time you reference it, just as you would another text.

Dos and Don’ts for Results

  • Limit your results to only those that address your research questions; return to the Results section later after you have completed the Introduction and remove less relevant information.
  • Indicate the statistical tests used with all relevant parameters. E.g., mean and standard deviation (SD): 44% (±3); median and interpercentile range: 7 years (4.5 to 9.5 years).
  • Use mean and standard deviation to report normally distributed data.
  • Use median and interpercentile range to report skewed data.
  • For numbers, use two significant digits unless more precision is necessary (2.08, not 2.07856444).
  • Never use percentages for very small samples. E.g., “one out of two” should not be replaced by 50%.

 Step 4: Write the Discussion/Conclusion

This section responds to the question “What do the results mean?” This section is easy to write, but difficult to write well. It requires more than a simply analysis—you have to interpret and “sell” your data to the journal and researchers, explaining just how important your findings are. In fact, many manuscripts are rejected because the Discussion section is weak.

The Discussion and Conclusion are often considered to be part of the same section, but the Conclusion is sometimes considered a separate section. At any rate, the Conclusion will be a very short and clear justification of your work or suggestion for future studies.

In the Discussion Section you should:

  • Critique your study—be honest about the effectiveness of your design; suggest modifications and improvement.
  • Answer this question: “Did your study contribute to knowledge in the field or not?”
  • Discuss the impact of this research on related research within the domain

Pre-writing Questions to Answer for the Discussion:

  • How do these results relate to the original question or objectives outlined in the Introduction section?
  • Do the data support your hypothesis?
  • Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported?
  • Discuss weaknesses and discrepancies. If your results were unexpected, try to explain why
  • Is there another way to interpret your results?
  • What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results?

Organization of Discussion

The Discussion section is more open than the Results and Methods section, but you should always focus first on what is MOST important and then move to what is less important to your research problem. Divide the analysis of results by paragraph and do not combine unrelated datasets in one paragraph

  • The first paragraph/part should summarize the process, the results, and the overall purpose of this study.
  • The second paragraph/part should answer questions about the limitations and potential flaws or shortcomings of this study (e.g., the “failure to reveal clear relationships between samples or groups”). Assesses which of the results are most useful in answering the research question.
  • The third paragraph should focus on the successes of the study and highlight which method or approach yielded the best results or those most closely hypothesized. You can also compare results of different methods and assess which was more fruitful and why.
  • In subsequent paragraphs, discuss the implications for this research and compare it to the results of other studies. This is the other section (in addition to the Introduction) where you can cite related studies to show how your study compares.

Conclusion

The Conclusion offers you a chance to briefly show how your work advances the field from the present state of knowledge. It adds a sort of exclamation point at the end of your paper and makes it more memorable as well.

Add a justification for your work here as well as indicate extensions and wider implications, as well as suggest future studies/experiments and point out any work that is currently ongoing. Do not simply repeat the Introduction or abstract here—extend the claims or questions raised in these sections.

Dos and Don’ts for Discussion/Conclusion

  • Don’t be TOO broad about the impact of this research—set some limitations.
  • Don’t include new terms or ideas in this section—they should be presented in the Introduction.
  • Use specific expressions: instead of “higher temperature” write “41ºC”; instead of “at a lower rate” write “0.7% less”; instead of “highly significant” write “p<0.001.”

Step 5: Write the Introduction

The Introduction might be the most important section of the body of your paper—it comes first and introduces what you will be doing, telling readers why your work is important.

A good introduction should:

  • Establish the context of the work
  • State the purpose of the work in the form of a hypothesis, question, or problem investigated
  • Give aims and rationale for your approach

Pre-writing questions to answer for the Introduction

  • What is the problem to be solved? (background and problem)
  • What do we know about this problem? (literature)
  • Are there any existing solutions? (literature)
  • What are the limitations or gaps in knowledge of existing solutions?
  • What do you hope to achieve with this study? (hypothesis/statement of purpose)

Organization of the Introduction

  • Background information
  • Motivations
  • Key primary literature
  • Hypothesis/research problem investigated
  • Approaches and rationale
Common Writing Errors

Eliminating grammar and style errors can greatly improve the flow of information in your paper and increase its chances of publication in journals.

Improving Quality of Writing

In order to write an effective research paper, authors need to know what areas of their writing to improve, and this includes avoiding grammar and style errors. Among the top writing errors we see at Wordvice are the following:

Wordvice Resources

How to Write a Research Paper Introduction

Writing the Results Section of a Research Paper

Which Verb Tenses to Use in a Research Paper

How to Write an Abstract for a Research Paper

How to Write a Research Paper Title

Useful Phrases for Academic Writing

Common Transition Terms in Academic Papers

Active and Passive Voice in Research Papers

100+ Verbs That Will Make Your Research Writing Amazing

Tips for Paraphrasing in Research Papers

Related Resources

Springer Online Research Resources (Springer)

ACSESS Digital Library (ASA, CSSA, and SSSA publications for reference) (ACSESS Digital Library)

Lecture Research Paper Reference

Yoon S-R, Kim SH, Lee H-W, Ha J-H (2017) A novel method to rapidly distinguish the geographical origin of traditional fermented-salted vegetables by mass fingerprinting. PLoS ONE 12(11): e0188217. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.018821717